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Lower participation and retention rates limit program reach and dilute program benefits for parents and families. Throughout the discussion in this chapter of elements of effective parenting programs, therefore, approaches that have shown success in increasing parents’ participation and retention in such programs are noted. Studies that have been done suggest that lesbian and gay parents adjusting to parenthood generally experience levels of stress comparable to those experienced by their heterosexual counterparts (Goldberg and Smith, 2014). Lesbian and gay parents, particularly when new to parenthood, have many of the same concerns as any other new parents and could benefit from the same support structures (e.g., those provided by parent support groups/classes, medical professionals, teachers, or community groups). The importance of personalized approaches to parenting skills also is central in working with parents with mental illness. C., Hidrobo, M., Ulkuer, N., Ertem, I., and Iltus, S. Strategies for reducing inequalities and improving developmental outcomes for young children in low-income and middle-income countries.

For example, mothers and fathers are likely to respond differently to program support based not only on their gender and role differences but also such factors as their engagement with the child and family, the level of respon- siveness of program staff, the nature of familial and community expectations and supports, and their residential status.

The identification of these elements is based on the committee’s review of multiple studies, literature reviews (Axford et al., 2012), information provided by a number of invited speakers at open sessions held for this study, and committee members’ own expertise and experiences. The effects of incentives and research requirements on participation rates for a community-based preventive intervention research study.

It should be noted that even those programs involving manualized interventions—with their relatively strict ordering of treatment components, each with a prescribed length—can be broken down into those components, which can be used more flexibly with success (Nakamura et al., 2014).

Clearly, a parenting program cannot be successful unless parents participate and remain in the program.

As described earlier in this report and by Breitenstein and colleagues (2014), studies of face-to-face parent training interventions indicate that 10 to 34 percent of parents of children in the preschool to grade school age range enroll to participate (Baker et al., 2010; Garvey et al., 2006; Heinrichs et al., 2005; Thornton and Calam, 2011). Mental health care for children with disruptive behavior problems: A view inside therapists’ offices. Garvey, C., Julion, W., Fogg, L., Kratovil, A., and Gross, D. Measuring participation in a prevention trial with parents of young children.

The importance of such tailored approaches is widely recognized. Father involvement program effects on fathers, father figures, and their Head Start children: A quasi-experimental study.

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